Module 1 – Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – notes, capersterpmofor.ml - computer e-education, open Download (PDF, MB). Mar 8, The objective of this book is to introduce students of Accountancy & Finance, Business Administration, Marketing, Banking & Finance, and. other electronic devices are important in enhancing communication. WHAT IS ICT? ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the.
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syllabus for ICT learning, development of content to support learning and provisioning of adequate infrastructure. The department capersterpmofor.ml · File :Angle sum .. Your own notes on how you organized the data and what you learnt. 4. A good example of a computer peripheral that requires a DAC is a loudspeaker or headphones. When you plug a loudspeaker into a computer, you are actually. Oct 26, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FULL NOTES DOWNLOAD PDF DOCUMENT. CLICK THE DOWNLOAD ICON.
In the United States and elsewhere, this discrepancy in access to ICT has created the so-called digital divide. The World Bank, numerous governmental authorities and non-government organizations NGOs advocate policies and programs that aim to bridge the digital divide by providing greater access to ICT among those individuals and populations struggling to afford it. These various institutions assert that those without ICT capabilities are left out of the multiple opportunities and benefits that ICT creates and will therefore fall further behind in socio-economic terms.
The United Nations considers one of its Sustainable Development Goals SDG to "significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the internet in least developed countries by Within the ICT market, the advancement of ICT capabilities has made the development and delivery of various technologies cheaper for ICT vendors and their customers while also providing new market opportunities.
For instance, telephone companies that once had to build and maintain miles of telephone lines have shifted to more advanced networking materials and can provide telephone, television and internet services; consumers now enjoy more choices in delivery and price points as a result.
The significance of ICT in enterprises For businesses, advances within ICT have brought a slew of cost savings, opportunities and conveniences. They range from highly automated businesses processes that have cut costs, to the big data revolution where organizations are turning the vast trove of data generated by ICT into insights that drive new products and services, to ICT-enabled transactions such as internet shopping and telemedicine and social media that give customers more choices in how they shop, communicate and interact.
But ICT has also created problems and challenges to organizations and individuals alike -- as well as to society as a whole. The digitization of data, the expanding use of high-speed internet and the growing global network together have led to new levels of crime, where so-called bad actors can hatch electronically enabled schemes or illegally gain access to systems to steal money, intellectual property or private information or to disrupt systems that control critical infrastructure.
ICT has also brought automation and robots that displace workers who are unable to transfer their skills to new positions. And ICT has allowed more and more people to limit their interactions with others, creating what some people fear is a population that could lose some of what makes it human.
A bus networkIs cheap to install just one long cable. Can be quite slow since all computers share the same cable when communicating.
Will stop working if there is a break in the central bus cable. Ring Network In this type of network each computer is connected to a loop of cable, the ring.
If you took a bus network and connected the ends of the bus cable together, you would have a ring network.
A ring networkCan cope with a break in the ring cable since all computers are still joined together it is now a bus network Obadah Diab Star Network In this type of network every computer is connected to a central device.
The device passes messages between computers. At the center of a star network you might use a hub cheap, but slower or a switch more expensive, but faster.
A star networkIs quite expensive to install you have to download lots of cable and the central device Is very fast since each computer has its own cable which it doesnt need to share. Can cope with a broken cable only one computer will be affected.
Will stop working if the central device breaks. Is the most common network topology. Any computer that is to be connected to a network needs to have a network interface card NIC. Cables are still used in most networks, rather than using only wireless, because they can carry much more data per second, and are more secure less open to hacking.
A hub is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN. A switch, like a hub, is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN. Obadah Diab A router is a network device that connects together two or more networks. A proxy server is a computer setup to share a resource, usually an Internet connection.
A bridge is a network device that typically links together two different parts of a LAN. What is a Record? The set of data associated with a single object or person is known as a record. What is a Field, and what is a Field Name? You'll see that each of our student's records contain the same items.
These items are known as fields. Each field has a field name. It is very important that every record in a database can be individually identified. We need to be sure that when we access a record, we are accessing the correct one. Analogue to Digital Convertor ADC If you want to attach an analogue input device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need an analogue to digital convertor ADC. A good example of a computer peripheral that requires an ADC is a microphone. When you plug a microphone into a computer, you are Obadah Diab actually plugging it into an ADC which converts the analogue signals from the microphone into digital data that the computer can then process.
Digital to Analogue Convertor DAC If you want to attach an analogue output device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need a digital to analogue convertor DAC.
A good example of a computer peripheral that requires a DAC is a loudspeaker or headphones. When you plug a loudspeaker into a computer, you are actually plugging it into a DAC, which takes digital data from the computer and converts it into analogue signals which the loudspeaker then converts into sound.
Now try to imagine living without them - washing your clothes by hand! Life would be a lot tougher. Microprocessor-controlled devices mean that we have more leisure time to relax and enjoy ourselves instead of doing household chores. We are able to communicate with people very easily using computers, mobile phones, etc. We can become part of online social networks, making friends with people from all over the world. Computers and Internet connections mean that many of the tasks that involved us leaving the house, for example, shopping for music, clothes or food, can now be done on-line.
Online shopping gives us more choice of products and saves us time. It is also great from those who are unable to get out of the house easily, such as the elderly, or the disabled. Trailing Cables Computer equipment is often connected to lots of cables: power, network, etc. If these cables are lying on the floor, they can cause people to trip over them.
Solution: Keep drinks and food away from computers Overloaded Power Sockets Plugging too many power cables into a socket can result in the socket being overloaded, overheating, and a fire starting. Solution: Never plug too many cables into a socket. Always make sure there are fire extinguishers nearby Heavy Objects Falling Obadah Diab Many items of computer equipment are very heavy: CRT monitors, laser printers, etc.
Heavy items can cause serious injury if they fall on people. So they are stored until the system comes online to process the data in one 'batch'. The advantage of batch processing is that it can be done during less-busy times on the computer or jobs can be queued up in order to fairly share a computing resource such as a super-computer.
The main disadvantage of batch processing is the time delay between collecting the input data and getting an output. It can also be frustrating to find out only later that a batch run has failed due to a data input problem.
RAM is a temporary storage place of data that flows from your computer and processor. It is lost when you shut down your computer. Operating system — How much memory does your operating system need to run efficiently? Intel chips are the most popular. The more space your computer has, the more data you can save- documents, movies, music, games and more. Most current desktops and laptops come with at least 40 GB hard drive. Bytes are used to measure the amount of information a device can store.
One byte is one character. A character can be a number, letter or symbol. One byte consists of eight bits binary digits. A bit is the smallest unit of information a computer can process. Kilobyte K — is equal to 1, bytes. Megabyte MB — is equal to 1,, bytes.